Course: 1 Lesson: 4 – Colors and adjectives

Course 1 Lesson 4
 About This Lesson このレッスンについてSubmit a Question
Natsumi Sensei


Know the following hiragana: さしすせそ and ざじずぜぞ


Memorize the colors. Make sure that you understand the different types of adjectives introduced in this lesson.
 New Vocabulary 新しい単語Submit a Question
By clicking on the button, you can hear how each word is pronounced. You can add any word, sentence or phrase to your "Notebook" by clicking on the word and then the save icon.
Japanese English Word Type
naniいro what color? question
いro color noun
あか red noun
あお blue noun
くro black noun
しro white noun
chaいro brown noun
きいro yellow noun
orenji orange (color) noun
muraさき purple noun
pinku pink noun
Gure- gray / grey noun
neずmiいro gray / grey (literally mouse color) noun
miずいro light blue (literally water color) noun
midori green noun
きnいro gold (color) noun
ぎnいro silver (color) noun
toうmeい clear (see through) noun
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 New Phrases 新しいフレーズSubmit a Question
Here in the NEW PHRASES section you don't have to think about the grammar of each phrase. Simply memorize these phrases to increase your conversation skills.
1. すmimaせn.
Excuse me. / Sorry.
2. ごmennaさい.
I am sorry. / Please forgive me.
3. Nihonご de nan deす か.
What is it in Japanese?
4. えいご de nan deす か.
What is it in English?
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 Culture Clip カルチャー・クリップSubmit a Question
Culture plays an important role in learning Japanese. Knowledge of modern and traditional culture will help you retain more information and learn faster!

Green is Blue? みどりは あお

Don’t ask me why, but Japanese people sometimes refer to what we call “green” as “blue.” For example, in Japan, when vegetables are not ripe they are referred to as blue, not green. A green apple isn’t green – it’s blue. When you’re at a stoplight, a blue light means “go,” even though the colors used for stoplights in Japan are nearly the same in America. So keep this in mind when someone yells to you, “Hey, let’s go! The light is blue!” There is a prefecture in the northern part of the main island honshuう called
あおmoriけn, which literally means “blue forest.” Then what color is the sky in Japan, you ask? Blue, of course!

 Grammar 文法Submit a Question
The Grammar sections of each lesson give you the building blocks necessary to speak Japanese properly. Make sure that you read and understand each section.

4-1. The “and” particle: to

to is the equivalent of English “and.” It must come between every word in a list. However you cannot use to to link sentences together.

[noun] to [noun] to [noun]

[noun] and [noun] and [noun]
1. すいか wa あかto midori deす.
Watermelons are red and green.
2. Tanaかさnto あnata wa wataし no tomodachi deす.
You and Tanaka are my friends.
3. Wataし no くruma wa しroto くroto あお deす.
My car is white and black and blue.

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Example Q&A
1.       あnata no くruma wa naniいro deす か.
    Midorito くro deす.
    Orenjito muraさき deす.

 What color is your car?
 It is green and black.
 It is orange and purple.
2.       こbayaしさn no neこ wa naniいro deす か.
    Chaいroto しroto くro deす.
    Tabun, くroto gure- deす.

 What color is Kobayashi's cat?
 It's brown and white and black.
 It is probably black and gray.

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Mini Quiz
Click the to reveal the English.
1. Wataし to hayaしさn wa さnjuうroくさい deす.
2. Rinご to banana wa furu-tsu deす.
3. Retasu to ninじn wa yaさい deす.

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4-2. Making nouns into adjectives

Up until now, no has been used to mark possession. no is also used to link nouns together. The noun that comes before the no describes the word that follows it. By adding no to a noun, the noun is transformed into what will from here on be referred to as a “ no adjective.”

[noun 1] no [noun 2]
1. nihon no tabemono
Japanese food
2. amerika no くruma
American car
3. nihonご no hon
Japanese (language) book

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Mini Quiz
Click the to reveal the English.
1. Toyota wa nihon no くruma deす.
2. すし wa nihonno tabemo no deす.

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4-3. Using colors to describe

In this lesson the colors are introduced in their noun form. With the noun forms of colors, it is incorrect to say (for example) あ か くruma to mean “red car.” To make the color an adjective you must link the words with no. This type of adjective is a no adjective.

1. chaいro no うma
brown horse
2. しro no うし
white cow
3. muraさき no maくra
purple pillow
4. きいro no kirin
yellow giraffe

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1. あか no くruma wa あnata no deす か
Is the red car yours?
2. Dare no pinku no いえ deす か.
Whose pink house is it (that)?

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Mini Quiz
Click the to reveal the English.
1. Wataし no くruma wa あか to しro no toyota deす.
2. Chaいrononeこ deす.

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4-4. adjectives

Some of the colors have an adjective form. An adjective always ends with and never requires no when describing other words. It is simply placed in front of the word it is to modify. We often refer to these type of adjectives as “True” adjectives. It is your choice to use the adjective form or the no adjective form. Only the following 6 colors have adjective forms.

1. あかい
2. あおい
3. くroい
4. しroい
5. chaいroい
6. きいroい

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To use an adjective, you simply place it in front of the word it modifies. This is true for all adjectives.

1. あかい くruma
red car
2. あおい pen
blue pen
3. chaいroい neこ
brown cat
4. しroい いnu
white dog

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Mini Quiz
Click the to reveal the Japanese.
1. a blue car
2. a brown dog
3. a white cat

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 Question and Answer 質問と答えSubmit a Question
Each question is presented with several potential answers. To test your pronunciation, try each question and answer out loud before you click the sound button.

1. Naniいro deす か.
くro deす.
Pinku deす.
Muraさき to orenji deす.
What color is it?
It's black.
It's pink.
It's purple and orange.
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2. Naniいro no くruma deす か.
Midori no くruma deす.
Muraさき no くruma deす.
あか to あお no くruma deす.
What color car is it?
It's a green car.
It's a purple car.
It's a red and blue car.
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3. あnata no haburashi wa あお deす か.
いいえ、 wataしno wa あか deす.
Haい、そう deす.
Is your toothbrush blue?
No, mine is red.
Yes, it is.
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4. こre wa naniいro deす か.
Miずいro deす.
きnいro deす.
ぎnいro deす.
What color is this?
It's light blue.
It's gold.
It's silver.
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5. あnata no neこ wa くro to しro deす か.
いいえ、 chaいro deす.
いいえ、 chiがいmaす.
Dare no midori no くruma deす か.
Tabun yoしdaさnno deす.
Is your cat black and white?
No, it is brown.
No, it's not.
Whose green car is this?
Maybe it's Yoshida's.
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6. あnata no me wa naniいro deす か.
くro deす.
あお deす.
What color are your eyes?
They are black.
They are blue.
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7. あnata no おかあさn no うさぎ wa naniいro deす か.
しro to neずmiいro deす.
What color is your Mother's rabbit?
I don't know.
It's white and gray.
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 Comprehension 読解Submit a Question
Read the sentences below out loud, then click the play button to listen. If you don't understand the reading selection, go back and review the grammar in this lesson.
Junこさn wa nijuうごさい deす.

かnojo no おtoうさn wa ごjuうniさい deす.

おtoうさn no namaえ wa yoしhiro deす.

Junこさn to おtoうさn no くruma wa honda deす.

おtoうさn no くruma wa muraさき deす.

Junこさn no くruma wa pinkutoあお deす.

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 More Practice 補充練習Submit a Question
In this section we will practice what was taught in the lesson and reinforce what was taught in prior lessons. Any new words or expressions are listed in the section.
A:     Tanaかさn no くruma wa nan deす か.
B:     Wataし no くruma wa niっさn deす。あnatanoha?
A:     Wataし no くruma wa mitsubiし deす。いro wa あか deす.
B:     そう deす か. Wataし no くruma wa しro deす.

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Course 1 Lesson 4
Hiragana たちつてと
 New Characters 新しい字Submit a Question
Learning the correct stroke order of the new characters is important, especially as your writing speed increases. The strokes are marked with arrows and numbers.
ta chi tsu te to
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da ji zu de do
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 Writing Styles 書くスタイルSubmit a Question
This section shows you the various acceptable styles for writing in Japanese. The red character is a great example hand written Hiragana.
ta chi tsu te to
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da ji zu de do
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 Writing Points 書くポイントSubmit a Question
The Writing Points in each lesson give you important information about how the symbols are used. Make sure that you read and understand each section.

W4-1. The double consonants

The double consonants (kk, pp, tt, cch) are doubly stressed. To represent them in hiragana, a small tsu is used. NOTE: The small tsu is always placed in front of the hiragana that needs to be doubled.

English Roma-ji Hiragana
school っこ っこ
magazine ざ< ざ<
postage stamp tte tte

Make sure to write the tsu smaller than normal to avoid confusion with a normal tsu.


W4-2. Which version of and zu should be used?

There are two versions of zu and ji. The first set is in Lesson 3 and the second set is presented in this lesson. and from Lesson 3 are most commonly used. zu and ji2 are used in only a few words, such as hanaji2 (nosebleed) and tsuzuく (to continue). When in doubt, use and .

Most Commonly Used
You will see these versions used much more commonly than the other versions.
Less Common
These versions are much less used. They are common in words in which there is a combination of similar characters, one with daくten and one with out. Look at the examples below.
 Hiragana Words You Can Write 書ける言葉Submit a Question
You should practice writing these words at least 5 times each. Be sure to pay attention to stroke order. By clicking on the button, you can hear how each word is pronounced.

けっこう no thanks.
ただ free
たいいく physical education
たいえき body fluid
ちず map
ちいき region
あつい hot
ていけつあつ low blood pressure
こうけつあつ high blood pressure
door (usually sliding)
かど a corner
ちえ wisdom
つづき continuation
とおい far
ちち my father
たつ to stand
つぎ next
げっこう moonlight
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 Lesson Quizzes クイズSubmit a Question
The quizzes will test your understanding of the material taught in each lesson. You can take each quiz as many times as you want to. The correct answers will be show at the end of the quiz.
 Additional Vocabulary 補充単語Submit a Question
The following words will possibly be used in the following lessons. Vocabulary is very important to attaining fluency in Japanese. The more words you know, the closer you will be to fluency!

Group F: things around the house

koppu cup
supu-n spoon
fo-ku fork
(お)さra plate
chawan bowl
(お)haし chopsticks
reいぞうこ refrigerator
toけい clock, watch
terebi television
zubon pants, slacks, trousers
くtsu shoes
しnbun newspaper
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 Download Area ダウンロードSubmit a Question
Natsumi Sensei

Hiragana TA CHI TSU TE TO Writing Practice Sheet

Hiragana DA JI ZU DE DO Writing Practice Sheet

 Related Videos 関連ビデオSubmit a Question
The video(s) below help explain what is taught in this lesson. It is recommended that you first complete the lesson and then watch the video(s).

 Hiragana Match Submit a Question
 Hiragana Match 2 Submit a Question
 New Phrases Submit a Question
 New Words Submit a Question
 Chizu Challenge Submit a Question
 YesJapan Kana Attack! Submit a Question
 YesJapan Strike! Submit a Question

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