Course: 1 Lesson: 2 – Working with a topic

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Course 1 Lesson 2
Which One?
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 About This Lesson このレッスンについてSubmit a Question
Natsumi Sensei

BEFORE THE LESSON

Know the following hiragana: あいうえお
Understand how to use desu and the question marker ka that were introduced in Lesson 1.

FROM THE TEACHERS

Remember the phrase Dore desu ka. and Docchi desu ka.(Which one is it?). .
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 New Vocabulary 新しい単語Submit a Question
By clicking on the button, you can hear how each word is pronounced. You can add any word, sentence or phrase to your "Notebook" by clicking on the word and then the save icon.
Japanese English Word Type
dore which one? (3 or more items) question
kore this one, this noun
sore that one, that noun
あre that one over there noun
docchi which one? (2 items only) question
kocchi this one, this (out of 2 items) noun
socchi that one, that (out of 2 items) noun
あcchi that one over there (out of 2 items) noun
retasu lettuce noun
banana banana noun
yasaい vegetables noun
furu-tsu fruit noun
kudamono fruit noun
sushi sushi (raw fish on rice) noun
pen pen noun
kuruma car noun
Konpyu-ta- computer noun
hon book noun
zasshi magazine noun
WORD ATTACK!
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 New Phrases 新しいフレーズSubmit a Question
Here in the NEW PHRASES section you don't have to think about the grammar of each phrase. Simply memorize these phrases to increase your conversation skills.
1. Nihongo ga hanasemasu ka.
Can you speak Japanese?
2. えいgo ga hanasemasu ka.
Can you speak English?
3. Sukoshi.
A little.
4. Zenzen.
Not at all.
5. Nihongo wo benkyoうshiteいmasu.
I am studying Japanese.
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 Culture Clip カルチャー・クリップSubmit a Question
Culture plays an important role in learning Japanese. Knowledge of modern and traditional culture will help you retain more information and learn faster!

Sushi and Sashimi

Many visitors to Japan don’t know the difference between sushi and sashimi. sushi is raw or cooked fish, eggs, or vegetables on rice. It is placed on top of a fist-full of rice, and normally between the fish and rice there is some wasabi. wasabi is a Japanese horseradish. It is very pungent. sashimi is just sliced raw fish. (Try it – you might like it!)

sushi sashimi sakana
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 Cool Tools クール・ツールSubmit a Question
In this section, learn some shortcuts and interesting ways to remember Japanese!

ko-so-あ-do patterns

In Japanese, there is a pattern of words that comes up many times. It is the ko-so-あ-do pattern. In this lesson there are two ko-so-a-do patterns:
kore, sore, あre, dore, and
kocchi, socchi, あcchi, docchi.

Notice that each word starts with ko, so, or do. The following chart shows the distance relation of these words to the speaker. Since the four words in a ko-so-あ-do group are similar in sound, they are easy to mix up. The diagram on the right will help you remember the relation of each word in the group to the speaker. Remember this diagram, because there are more ko-so-あ-do groups coming up.

ko (HINT: Klose) Close enough to touch
so (HINT: Sort of close) Not enough to touch
(HINT: All the way over there) Definitely not close enough to touch.
do (HINT: Don't you know?) Question word.

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 Grammar 文法Submit a Question
The Grammar sections of each lesson give you the building blocks necessary to speak Japanese properly. Make sure that you read and understand each section.

2-1. The topic marker

The particle ha is used to mark the topic of the sentence. It can be thought to mean, “Speaking of (the) ~,” or “As for (the) ~,” but it does not have any meaning in English. Here are two easy rules: RULE 1 1. Generally, everything that comes before ha is the topic or part of the topic. RULE 2 2. Everything after the ha describes or asks a question about the topic.

structure
[topic] + ha + [question or description]
あshita wa getsuyoうbi desu.
Tomorrow is Monday.
(Speaking of tomorrow, it is Monday.)
Yukarisan wa nihonjin desu.
Yukari is Japanese.
(As for Yukari, she is Japanese.)
Ringo wa あka desu.
Apples are red.
(Speaking of apples, they are red.)
Mini Quiz
Click the to reveal the Japanese.
1. Bananas are fruit.
2. Is this sushi?
3. Is lettuce a fruit.
4. Is she Tanaka? (using the pronoun "her")
5. Lettuce is a vegetable.

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2-2. Using ha in a variety of sentences

Remember that ha is used to mark the topic of a sentence. Read the examples to see how ha can be applied to the words that you already know plus new words from this lesson. Don’t forget that the word before the ha is the topic, and everything after ha is asking a question about or describing the topic. Cover up the Japanese and see if you can translate the following sentences:

Example Q&A
1.       Kore wa nan desu ka.
    Sore wa kagami desu.

 What is this?
 That is a mirror.
2.       Sore wa nan desu ka.
    Sore wa pen desu.
    あre wa banana desu.

 What is that?
 That is a pen.
 That over there is a banana.
3.       Kore wa yasaい desu ka.
    いいえ、 sore wa furu-tsu desu.

 Is this a vegetable?
 No, that is a fruit.
4.       Banana wa nan desu ka.
    Banana wa furu-tsu desu.

 What is a banana?
 Bananas are fruits.
5.       Retasuhafuru-tsu desu ka.
    いいえ、 retasu wa yasaい desu.

 Is lettuce a fruit?
 No, lettuce is a vegetable.

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2-3. The question words dore and docchi

dore and docchi both mean “which one.” dore is used with groups of three or more. If there are only two items, docchi is used.

structure
[topic] + ha

[topic] + ha Docchi desu ka.

It’s important to remember which word to use when asking “which one”. Here are two more rules to help you: RULE 3 If there are three or more items, dore is used. RULE 4 If there are only two items, docchi is used.

Examples
1. Kuruma wa dore desu ka.
Which one is (the / a) car? (3 or more items)
2. Kuruma wa docchi desu ka.
Which one is (the / a) car? (2 items only)
3. Furu-tsu wa dore desu ka.
Which one is a fruit? (3 or more items)
4. Furu-tsu wa docchi desu ka.
Which one is a fruit? (2 items only)
5. Yasaい wa dore desu ka.
Which one is a vegetable? (3 or more items)
6. Yasaい wa docchi desu ka.
Which one is a vegetable? (2 items only)

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Mini Quiz
Click the to reveal the English.
1. Sore wa konpyu-ta- desu ka.
2. Sushi wa docchi desu ka.
3. Kore wa nan desu ka.
4. Hon wa dore desu ka.
5. Zasshi wa kore desu ka.

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2-4. Following the same pattern when answering

Notice that the answers and the questions in the example Q&A below follow the same sentence pattern. When answering questions, remember that 90% of the answer is in the question. Also, when the question has cchi in it, the answer should not change to re. Try to keep response sentences in the same format as their question sentences.

Example Q&A
1.       Kagami wa dore desu ka.
    Kagami wa sore desu.

 Which one is a mirror?
 That one is a mirror.
2.       Mado wa docchi desu ka.
    Mado wa あcchi desu.

 Which one is a window?
 That one over there is a window.

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2-5. Using what you know to learn more

If you don’t know a word, use the Japanese you know to ask someone what the word is. You can use the phrase Nan desu ka. (What is it?) and the particle ha to ask what something is. Let’s say that you don’t know what えnpitsu means. Look at the following examples to see how you could ask what えnpitsu means.

Examples
1. えnpitsu wa nan desu ka.
What is "enpitsu?"
2. えnpitsu wa pencil desu.
Enpitsu is a pencil.

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 Question and Answer 質問と答えSubmit a Question
Each question is presented with several potential answers. To test your pronunciation, try each question and answer out loud before you click the sound button.

1. Dore desu ka.
Kore desu.
あre desu.
Sore desu.
Which one is it?
It's this one.
It's that one over there.
It's that one.
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2. Kore wa nan desu ka.
Makura desu.
Korehakonpyu-ta- desu.
What is this?
It's a pillow.
This is a computer.
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3. Kore wa yasaい desu ka.
Haい、yasaい desu.
いいえ、 furu-tsu desu.
Is this a vegetable?
Yes, it is a vegetable.
No, it's a fruit.
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4. あre wa nan desu ka.
Sekken desu.
Taoru desu.
Wakarimasen.
What is that over there?
It's soap.
It's a towel.
I don't know.
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5. Pen wa docchi desu ka.
Pen wa kocchi desu.
Pen wa socchi desu.
Which one is the pen? (2 items)
The pen is this one.
The pen is that one.
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6. Sore wa nan desu ka.
Kore wa konpyu-ta- desu.
What is that?
This is a computer.
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7. Tomato wa yasaい desu ka.
いいえ、 furu-tsu desu.
Are tomatoes vegetables?
No, they are fruits.
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Course 1 Lesson 2
Hiragana かきくけこ
 New Characters 新しい字Submit a Question
Learning the correct stroke order of the new characters is important, especially as your writing speed increases. The strokes are marked with arrows and numbers.
ka ki ku ke ko
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ga gi gu ge go
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 Writing Styles 書くスタイルSubmit a Question
This section shows you the various acceptable styles for writing in Japanese. The red character is a great example hand written Hiragana.
ka ki ku ke ko
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ga gi gu ge go
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 Writing Points 書くポイントSubmit a Question
The Writing Points in each lesson give you important information about how the symbols are used. Make sure that you read and understand each section.

W2-1. The dakuten

The only difference between kakikukeko and gagigugego are the last two strokes up in the right hand corner. Those strokes are called dakuten. You will see them in many of the writing lessons.

KA GA

When writing the dakuten you must make sure to write them at an angle. Notice that writing them horizontally or vertically is wrong.

WRONG
WRONG
CORRECT

W2-2. Writing ga (GA) the correct way

When adding dakuten to ka to make it ga, make sure that they are shorter than the third stroke. The third stroke should always be longer than the dakuten

WRONG
WRONG
CORRECT

W2-3. The different versions of ki (KI)

You may have noticed in the Writing Styles section of this lesson that there are two versions of ki.

This version has 4 strokes and is very common when writing. The majority of Japanese people write using this version.
This version has combined the 3rd and 4th into one stroke. It is very common in printed text such as books and magazines.

It is your choice as to which one you write. As long as it is legible.

 Hiragana Words You Can Write 書ける言葉Submit a Question
You should practice writing these words at least 5 times each. Be sure to pay attention to stroke order. By clicking on the button, you can hear how each word is pronounced.

がいこくご a foreign language
かご a basket
がいこく a foreign country
かき oyster
moth
がく frame
tree
いか squid
おおきい big
かぐ to smell
こい carp (fish)
きいきい a squeaky sound or voice
きがえ a change of clothing
あか red
かい a shell
いけ pond
けいかく a plan
ごご afternoon
かぎ key
きかい machine
かお face
おか a hill
くうこう airport
きく to listen
くぎ a nail (one that you hammer)
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 Lesson Quizzes クイズSubmit a Question
The quizzes will test your understanding of the material taught in each lesson. You can take each quiz as many times as you want to. The correct answers will be show at the end of the quiz.
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 Additional Vocabulary 補充単語Submit a Question
The following words will possibly be used in the following lessons. Vocabulary is very important to attaining fluency in Japanese. The more words you know, the closer you will be to fluency!

Group C: family

おkaあsan mother
toうsan father
おjiいsan grandfather
おbaあsan grandmother
あkachan baby
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Group D: greetings and farewells

あrigatoう thank you (thanks)
おhayoうgozaいmasu good morning
konnichiwa good afternoon
konbanwa good evening
sayoうnara good bye (farewell)
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 Download Area ダウンロードSubmit a Question
Natsumi Sensei

Hiragana KA KI KU KE KO Writing Practice Sheet


Hiragana GA GI GU GE GO Writing Practice Sheet


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 Related Videos 関連ビデオSubmit a Question
The video(s) below help explain what is taught in this lesson. It is recommended that you first complete the lesson and then watch the video(s).

 Hiragana Match Submit a Question
 Hiragana Match 2 Submit a Question
 New Phrases Submit a Question
 New Words Submit a Question
 Chizu Challenge Submit a Question
 YesJapan Kana Attack! Submit a Question
 YesJapan Strike! Submit a Question
 Ask-A-Teacher 
test question
Open JFZ_Tech_Danny asked 10 months ago  • 
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